Flora which grows naturally without any human interaction in nature is known as natural vegetation. It can form jungles or forests. In India, natural vegetation usually relies on the amount of rainfall.
However, altitude and temperature also plays a vital role in hilly regions like Himalayan forests.
Types of Natural Vegetation in India
In India, there are seven types of natural vegetation on the basis of temperature, rainfall, soil etc. Here are some of the common types of natural vegetation –
They are found in areas getting very huge rainfall, so soil is wet as always. Trees never have lack of moisture. So, green leaves foam a canopy of trees in the forest regions. So, this forest is known as Evergreen forest as it remains green all the year round. Some of the most common varieties of trees grown in these forests are toon, gurjar, chaplasha, dhup, jamun, white cedar, Indian chestnut, rosewood, and bamboos.
These trees are widely used as furniture, railway sleepers etc. as they are strong, durable, fire-grained, and hard. These forests are spread in regions which get average rainfall of over 200cm every year, such as Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and others.
It is believed that most plants on the earth are actually found on Himalayas. Some of the major reasons include different temperature on the earth surface and rainfall conditions which help most plants to grow. Because of change in altitude and because of its position in sub-tropical region in the Himalayas, variety of rainfall conditions and temperature prevail. When compared to one another, The Western and Eastern Himalayas vary in rainfall conditions and temperature. So, its geomorphic unit witnesses great diversity of natural vegetation.
There are hardly any plants seen in the desert regions of Rajasthan. It also receives less than 25cm of average annual rainfall and receives high temperature all the year round. It is very difficult for plants to grow and even survive in these conditions. Only a few thorny plants, cactus, and clumps of grass grow on sand.
Humid Deciduous Forests
They get rainfall in both rainy and summer seasons, and remain dry during winters, where average rainfall ranges from 100cm to 200cm every year. Top of these forests avoid loss of moisture through transpiration from leaves in dry season and trees shed the leaves. So, these trees are known as deciduous trees.
Dry Deciduous Forest
This type of forest mainly grows in the areas getting up to 50 to 100 cm of rainfall every year and high temperature. Hence, shrubs, grasses, and some deciduous trees are found in these forests. Density of trees grows around rivers.
The soil is dry where rainfall is low. In dry soil, plants growing can absorb water from the soil. In dry areas, plants conserve the water by adapting themselves to avoid growing large leaves. These thorns serve as leaves and sometimes keep it from herbivorous animals. They are found usually in areas which receive low rainfall from 25cm to 50cm and high temperature.