9 Essential Steps Before You Start Investing in Stocks

Stock investing offers the potential for long-term wealth creation. Historically, stocks have outperformed other investment options, providing higher returns over time.

You have 2 broad choices when it comes to stock investments

Stock investing and stock trading are both methods of participating in the financial markets and buying and selling shares of publicly traded companies.


You need a stockbroker who will help you buy & sell stocks. You can go with full service broker who provide advisory services but charge a higher brokerage fee, or you can open account with a lowest brokerage discount broker in India without advisory service.

While both stock investing and trading share similarities, there are key differences between the two approaches.

Stock Trading involves buying and selling stocks more frequently, often within shorter timeframes ranging from seconds to weeks. Your primary aim is to profit from short-term price movements and market volatility.

You need various strategies, including technical analysis, chart patterns, indicators, and news events, to make trading decisions. The goal of stock trading is to generate profits by capitalizing on price fluctuations, irrespective of the long-term prospects of the underlying companies.

Whereas, Stock investing involves purchasing shares of a company with the intention of holding them for the long term, typically years or even decades. Here you focus on the fundamental analysis of companies, including factors such as financial health, management team, competitive advantage, industry trends, and growth potential.

The primary objective of stock investing is to generate wealth over time through the appreciation of stock prices and potential dividends. Long-term investors often adopt a buy-and-hold strategy, allowing their investments to grow and compound over time.

By investing in stocks, you become a part-owner of companies, allowing you to benefit from their growth and share in their profits. Stocks also provide diversification opportunities, spreading your risk across different industries and sectors. They offer liquidity, enabling you to buy and sell easily, and can act as a hedge against inflation.

Before You Start Investing or Trading in Stocks

1. Educate Yourself

Take the time to educate yourself about the basics of the stock market, different investment strategies, and risk management before diving into stock investing.

You can read books, articles, and online resources, and consider taking courses or attending seminars to enhance your knowledge.

2. Set Clear Financial Goals

Determine your financial goals and the purpose of your investments. Are you investing for retirement, saving for a specific milestone, or looking for long-term wealth accumulation? Also called long-term goals with an investment horizon of around 10 years.

Or whether you are investing for buying a car or funding a foreign vacation trip. These are short-term goals with an investment horizon of 1-3 years. Clearly defining your goals will help shape your investment strategy.

3. Build an Emergency Fund

Before investing in stocks, it’s important to establish an emergency fund. You can create an emergency fund by keeping three to six months’ worth of living expenses set aside in a liquid and easily accessible account. This will provide a safety net in case of unexpected financial setbacks.

Steps to Create Emergency Funds

  1. Assess your monthly expenses: Calculate your monthly expenses to determine the amount you need to cover three to six months of living costs.
  2. Set a savings goal: Establish a target amount for your emergency fund and create a budget to allocate a portion of your income towards savings each month.
  1. Automate savings: Set up an automatic transfer from your salary account to a separate savings account identified for emergency funds.
  1. Reduce unnecessary expenses: Identify areas where you can cut back on non-essential spending to free up more funds for your emergency savings.

4. Assess Your Risk Tolerance

Risk tolerance refers to your ability and willingness to absorb the potential loss of investment value in pursuit of higher returns. It is an important consideration in investing because different people have varying comfort levels when it comes to taking on investment risk.

Understand your risk tolerance, which is your comfort level with taking on investment risk. You need to consider factors such as your age, EMIs, and overall financial situation.

A higher risk tolerance will let you have a more aggressive investment strategy, while a lower risk tolerance may call for a more conservative approach.

5. Determine Your Investment Capital

Decide how much capital you are willing to invest in stocks. Make sure it’s an amount that you can afford to invest without compromising your daily living expenses or emergency fund.

Note – that investing in stocks carries the risk of potential losses, you need to invest only in what you are comfortable with.

6. Open a Brokerage Account

To invest in stocks, you’ll need to open a brokerage account with a reputable stockbroker. As per research report on the top 20 brokers by Investing Expert, there are a total of 266 stockbrokers registered with NSE.  Research different brokers, compare their features, fees, and available resources, and choose one that aligns with your needs.

You can open an account online or visit a local branch if available.

To open a brokerage account in India:

  1. Research and Choose a Broker: Research different brokerage firms in India to find one that suits your needs. Consider factors such as brokerage fees, account types, trading platforms, customer service, and the range of investment options offered.
  1. Gather Required Documents: Documents needed include your
  • PAN card (Permanent Account Number),
  • proof of identity (such as an Aadhaar card, passport, or driver’s license),
  • proof of address (such as an Aadhaar card, utility bill, or bank statement),
  • passport-sized photographs.
  1. Fill out Application Forms: The account opening application form can be filled online from the stockbroker’s website or physically by visiting their branch office. Fill out the form accurately and provide all the required information.
  1. KYC Verification: Complete the KYC (Know Your Customer) process by uploading or submitting the necessary documents along with the filled application form.
  2. Fund Your Account: Transfer funds into your trading account as per your investment strategy. This can typically be done through online bank transfers.

7. Develop an Investment Strategy

Determine your investment strategy based on your goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon. Decide whether you want to invest in individual stocks or opt for a passive approach of stock investing through ETFs and mutual funds.

Consider factors such as asset allocation, diversification, and regular portfolio rebalancing.

8. Research and Select Stocks

Conduct thorough research on the companies you are interested in before you invest. It is important that you analyze the company’s financial health, industry prospects, competitive position, and management team.

Pay attention to factors such as earnings growth, valuation, and dividend policy. Additionally, stay informed about market trends and economic developments that could impact your investments.

9. Start with a Small Portfolio

Begin with a small, diversified portfolio of stocks. This will help you spread your risk and allow you to gain experience in managing multiple investments.

As you become more comfortable and knowledgeable, you can consider expanding your portfolio.

After You Have Started Investing

Monitor and Review Your Investments: Regularly monitor your investments and review their performance against your goals.

You need to stay informed about market news, company updates, and economic indicators and make adjustments to your portfolio accordingly.

Stay Disciplined and Patient: You need to avoid making impulsive decisions based on short-term market fluctuations. Stick to your investment strategy, focus on long-term growth, and avoid emotional reactions to market volatility.

Stock investing requires discipline and patience.

Continuously Learn and Adapt: You need to stay updated on market trends, investment strategies, and new opportunities. Continuously evaluate and refine your investment approach based on your experiences and changing market dynamics.

Remember stock investing is an ongoing learning process.


Investing in stocks involves risk, you need to keep in mind the above steps to get successful in stock investing.

In case of any doubt or confusion consider consulting with a financial advisor or investment professional to get personalized advice tailored to your specific situation and goals.